How to write a ‘hello world’ serverless WebRTC app

I created this tiny serverless WebRTC chat app. Let’s see how it works.

The big picture is that Alice and Bob want to chat. Alice is going to begin the chat, and invite Bob to it. Alice and Bob use a STUN server to discover their own public addresses. They will exchange their public addresses in some other way (e.g. copy-paste) in order to chat.

To begin, the RTCPeerConnection class is still hidden behind vendor prefixes, so let’s find it:

var RTCPeerConnection = window.RTCPeerConnection || webkitRTCPeerConnection || mozRTCPeerConnection;

Next, we make a new RTCPeerConnection. This takes an RTCConfiguration dictionary as a argument:

var peerConn = new RTCPeerConnection({'iceServers': [{'urls': ['']}]});

The peerConn object “represents a WebRTC connection between the local computer and a remote peer”. Let’s look at that RTCConfiguration argument in more detail:

  'iceServers': [
      'urls': [

There are many possible options, but we only pass iceServers. This is a list of RTCIceServer objects, each representing a STUN or TURN server. We only care about STUN here, so we only pass a single STUN server. We choose the Google-operated server at, running on UDP port 19302.

Both Alice and Bob create their own peerConn. Now they diverge. Alice adds a “data channel” to the peer connection:

var dataChannel = peerConn.createDataChannel('test');

A peer connection can have multiple channels, and each channel is independent (e.g. ordering and reliability guarantees apply per-channel). The argument to createDataChannel is a human-readable name for the channel; we’ve chosen 'test'.

There’s an optional second argument: an RTCDataChannelInit dictionary, where we can configure the semantics of the channel (whether it’s ordered or reliable). I’ll cover that in a future post.

Next Alice sets a listener for ICE candidates:

peerConn.onicecandidate = (e) => { /* ... */ };

This function is called whenever the icecandidate event occurs on peerConn. I’ll explain it soon.

Next, Alice calls


This “initiates the creation of an offer which includes information about the WebRTC session, and any candidates already gathered by the ICE agent, for the purpose of being sent over the signaling channel to a potential peer to request a connection”. Let’s break that down:

Now let’s explain that peerConn.onicecandidate. This function is called by the local ICE agent when it wants to send a message to the remote ICE agent via the signaling channel. More specifically, this function call occurs when an RTCIceCandidate is added to peerConn, e.g. because a STUN server told us about one of our possible public addresses.

Here’s our full onicecandidate handler:

peerConn.onicecandidate = e => {
  if (e.candidate == null) {
    console.log("Get joiners to call: ", "join(", JSON.stringify(peerConn.localDescription), ")");

This handler is not typical! Normally, it would look like:

peerConn.onicecandidate = e => {
  mySignallingChannel.send(e.candidate);  // E.g. this could be via Pusher

That e is an RTCPeerConnectionIceEvent. Its important property is e.candidate, which is either null or an RTCIceCandidate. If e.candidate == null, this signifies that the local ICE agent has finished gathering candidates. Otherwise, the application is expected to deliver the candidate to the remote ICE agent via the signaling channel.

In our serverless system, we do not deliver the candidate every time the function is called. This could require many copy-pastes! Instead, we wait until all ICE candidates have been gathered, and deliver them all at once. This works because each ICE candidate is added to the peerConn.localDescription when the ICE candidate finds it.

The onicecandidate handler is not called until the ICE candidate starts gathering. It appears the ICE candidate only starts gathering once we call peerConn.createOffer:


(The options dictionary here is unimportant.)

The peerConn.createOffer({}) returns a promise of an RTCSessionDescription. This “session description” describes some media streams that would be exchanged by the peers. Alice immediately sets the description on her RTCPeerConnection:

peerConn.createOffer({}).then((desc) => peerConn.setLocalDescription(desc))

I’ll describe the code for Bob in a future post.

Tagged #programming, #webrtc, #javascript, #networking.
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