How do JavaScript iterators work?

For JavaScript programmers, each passing year introduces a new way to loop over an array. Here are some of the ways I won’t be talking about:

var arr = [1,2,3,4,5];

// Old-school, just like in C
for (var i = 0; i < arr.length; i++) console.log(arr[i]);

// loops over object properties
for (var i in arr) console.log(arr[i]);

// forEach applies a function to each value
arr.forEach(n => console.log(n));

Since around 2015, there’s yet another way: the for...of statement. Here’s what it looks like:

for (var n of arr) {

The for...of statement is best seen as syntactic sugar. The above loop would de-sugar to the following:

var iterator = arr[Symbol.iterator]();
var v =;
while (!v.done) {
  var n = v.value;
  v =;

There are many mysterious things in here, so let’s unpack it! The for...of statement does not just work on arrays - it works on iterables. An iterable is anything that you can call [Symbol.iterator]() on and get an iterator back. The code above does that to the array arr, and gets back an iterator that it assigns to iterator.

Down the rabbithole: what’s an iterator? Well, that’s anything that you can .next() on repeatedly, and get something that looks like { done: bool, value: any }. The code above repeatedly calls until it’s marked as done, and for each loop, it calls console.log on the returned value.

As I said, arrays are one kind of iterable. But because this just works with ordinary JavaScript objects and methods, we can define our own iterables! Here’s another way we could define arr that has the same result when applying for...of to it:

const arr = {};
arr[Symbol.iterator] = function() {
  let nextVal = 1;
  return {
    next: function() {
      const v = nextVal++;
      return { done: v > 5, value: v };
for (var n of arr) {

The above code also prints numbers 1 through 5 to the console. However, it only keeps the state nextVal, so it’s more memory-efficient than keeping the entire array in memory.

Tagged #programming, #javascript.

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