Learn more about Russian war crimes in Ukraine.

What are AMD modules? Fetch your sick bag

I don’t think anyone would object to the claim that JavaScript has too many module systems. From the olden days we have raw <script> loading, where dependencies are implicit, and exports are vomited onto the window object. Node.js gave us the CommonJS module system, where a module’s dependencies are synchronously, dynamically require()d, and its exports placed on an exports object. ECMAScript 2015 gave us “ES modules”, where a module’s dependencies are statically imported before execution, and its exports are statically defined, top-level variables.

Unfortunately, none of these systems are really acceptable for use in the browser. Raw <script>s aren’t acceptable because they’re ... not modules. CommonJS is not acceptable because it loads modules synchronously, but the necessary HTTP requests in the browser are fundamentally asynchronous. ECMAScript modules are not acceptable because they don’t have wide enough support yet.

So, enter Asynchronous Module Definition, or AMD. This appeared around 2011. AMD modules look like this:

// This is https://example.com/modules/printCounter.js
  ['./counter', 'print'],       // names of dependencies
  function (counter, print) {   // the dependency modules passed in
    return {                    // our module object, with one function
      printAndIncrement: () => {

You know you’re looking at AMD (or something like it) if you see calls to a define function, or the inclusion of an “AMD loader” script, like <script src="lib/require.js"></script>.

An AMD module like this assumes a global define function, which is provided by an “AMD loader” like RequireJS. The AMD loader knows how to load a module given its name. For example, the name ./counter might map to the file https://example.com/modules/counter.js. The AMD loader loads this, e.g. by inserting <script src='/modules/counter.js'></script> into the document.

So far, sensible enough, but it all goes wrong from here. For some reason, AMD also defines a form called “Simplified CommonJS wrapping”, which might be the most disgusting thing in the JavaScript ecosystem. It claims to turn a CommonJS module into an AMD-compatible module, like this:

define(function (require, exports, module) {
  var messages = require('./messages');  // synchronous, dynamic require!
  var print = require('print');          // just like in Node.js! <3

But how the hell can the AMD loader turn those synchronous, dynamic require calls into asynchronous module loads?! Buckle up. The loader takes your function, and before calling it, it calls .toString() on the function (a feature that JavaScript really shouldn’t provide), then does some regex searches to find calls to require. Yep, it turns out regular expressions can solve the halting problem after all. To see the insanity, take the following module:

define(function (require) {
  var someString = "require('./nonExistentModule')";

This module will cause the loader to make an HTTP request for nonExistentModule.js, which of course causes an error. It makes me feel sick that someone even entertained the idea of making a module system this way.

What can computers do? What are the limits of mathematics? And just how busy can a busy beaver be? This year, I’m writing Busy Beavers, a unique interactive book on computability theory. You and I will take a practical and modern approach to answering these questions — or at least learning why some questions are unanswerable!

It’s only $19, and you can get 50% off if you find the discount code ... Not quite. Hackers use the console!

After months of secret toil, I and Andrew Carr released Everyday Data Science, a unique interactive online course! You’ll make the perfect glass of lemonade using Thompson sampling. You’ll lose weight with differential equations. And you might just qualify for the Olympics with a bit of statistics!

It’s $29, but you can get 50% off if you find the discount code ... Not quite. Hackers use the console!

More by Jim

Tagged #programming, #javascript, #web. All content copyright James Fisher 2020. This post is not associated with my employer. Found an error? Edit this page.